IGNOU EHI 02 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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EHI 02 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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 Note: Attempt all questions. All questions carry equal marks.


Section 1: Answer each question in about 500 words.

  1. Discuss the Mesolithic cultures of India? 20

Or

Discuss the town planning, drainage and architectural features of Harappan Civilization.

In 1872, Fergusson brought out his excellent work entitled “Rude Stone Monuments in all Countries: their age and uses. This first attracted the attention of scholars. Although Babington (1823) had published his book, “Descriptions of the Pandoo Coolies in Malawar” and Meadows Tylor (1873) was writing about his observations pertaining to the “Distribution of Cairns, Cromlechs, Kistveans and other Celtic, Druidical or Scythian monuments in the Dekhan”. Fergusson’s work on Megaliths may still be regarded as a landmark because of its wide scope and integrated approach.

As with the descriptive accounts, the first excavation of Megalithic monuments also took place more than a century ago. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Dr. Jagor first excavated in the classic site of Adicanallur in the Tirunevelly district, Tamil Nadu. The extensive site of Junapani, near Nagpur in Maharastra was also excavated on a small scale by Rivett-Carnac (1879). Simultaneously, extensive exploration in the Madras region continued, resulting in the publication of the list of antiquarian remains in the Presidency of Madras by Sewell in 1882. At the turn of the century, Foote (1901) brought out an excellent Catalogue of antiquities, including megaliths. In the later years of the 19th century, Alexander Rea (1902-03) excavated a number of megalithic sites in South India. The classic site of Adichanallur was also reexcavated in 1903-04 by Louis Lapicque. The remarkable variety and distinctive natures of the Indian Megalithic cultures were then placed before the world by Rea in 1915, when he published the Catalogue of the Prehistoric antiquities from Adichanallur and Perumbair. A decade later, Hunt (1924) published the result of the excavation of Megalithic graves in Andhra Pradesh. By the end of the first quarter of the 20th century, a number of Megalithic sites had been excavated. However, the first attempt to place the South Indian Megaliths in a chronological framework was by Sir Mortimer Wheeler (1948), who excavated the sites of Brahmagiri and Chandravalli in Karnataka in 1944.

In 1962, it appeared that the megaliths, that is, huge stone monuments, were a special feature of South India. Preliminary classification had shown regional types. Wheeler’s excavation at Brahmagiri showed that these were not as old as once believed. This was confirmed by subsequent excavations at Sanur, Maski and other places. While studying the Karnataka megalithic monuments A. Sundara (1975) concluded that “the varied tomb types in different geological zones are essentially due to the traditional affiliations rather than environmental influence.” The megalithic builders at Hallur and further south at Paiyampalli, were not only adept at quarrying all kinds of stones, but they made a judicious use of these rocks. They employed a particular stone for a particular part of the tomb.

Again, these people were excellent architects-engineers. The best example is the constructional plan of the passage chamber. Though we still do not know about the houses and habitations of these megalithic builders, the recovery of sickles and plough coulters of iron, rice and ragi grains from the excavations at Kunnattur and Hallur respectively, shows that these people were probably dependent largely upon agriculture and partly upon hunting, as proved by the hunting scenes in the rock-paintings at Hire-Benkal. Animals such as cow/ox, goat/sheep, dogs and horses were domesticated. So far no evidence of literacy in the form of writing of any kind has been found from the megaliths in Karnataka.

Excavation of four sites at Heggadehalli revealed some new types of burials, which seem to be unique. Instead of the stone sides containing a simple pit or underground cist of stone slabs, at this place, the sides contained a pit and at the base of the pit were laid a granitic slab over which the funerary offerings were deposited. The pit was then filled with soft earth. On this lay the large capstone. Another megalith contained only a pit without a stone slab at the base, whereas in the third one was a cairn side, under which was a stone chamber of large granitic slabs, inordinately large in dimension. It also contained an underground passage to the east outside the cist. Except pottery, nothing else was found from the chambers. This is of the usual kind, black-and-red ware and included bowls, tall three-legged vases and conical vessels. Up till now, any kind of weapons have not been found at these sites. However, the differences in the method of making these three megaliths might indicate a kind of economic and social status their builders enjoyed in their society. An extension of the South Indian Megaliths to Vidarbha has come to light by the excavation at Junapani and subsequent full-fledged excavtions at Khapa and Muhurjhari. The excavations at Khapa and Mahurjhari and another site at Naikund have supported that the megaliths belonged to a particular section of the community or people in each region. The evidence from Vidarbha and Tamil nadu, particularly horse bits and several types of iron weapons suggest that these sepulchral monuments might only belong to a warrior class.

  1. What are the main features of the Society, economy and polity of the early Vedic period? 20

Or

Examine the nature of administrative structure, society and polity of the Guptas.

The Early Vedic society was pastoral, cattle rearing being the dominant occupational activity. A pastoral society relies more on its animal wealth than agricultural produce. Pastoralism is a subsistence strategy adopted by people who live in areas where large scale agriculture is not feasible due to some environmental and to a certain extent, cultural constraints. Hymns of the Rigveda yield extensive evidence of the importance of cattle in the Early Vedic society. Many linguistic expressions in the Rigveda are associated with the cow (gau). Cattle was the chief measure of wealth and a wealthy man who owned many cattle was called ‘gomat’. The terms used for conflicts and battles in this period were gavishti, gavesana, gavyat, etc. The former literally means ‘to search for cows’. The terms themselves suggest that possession of cattle was the bone of contention between goups and led to occasional inter-tribal fights and conflicts.

The Panis, who. were the enemies of the Vedic people, are stated in the Rigveda to have hidden their wealth, mostly cows, in the mountains and forests. The Vedic god Indra was invoked to release these cattle. This reference suggests that cattle raids were common. The raja or the chief is called the ‘gopati’ or one who protects cows. In the Rigveda, Godhuli is used as a term for a measure of time. Distance is called gavyuti. A daughter is called duhitr or one who milks the cows. Kinship units are labelled as gotra.

The Early Vedic Society was a tribal society, in which social relations based on khd$p ties were predominant. The society was not divided according to caste lines, and even the rajas (kings), the purohitas (priests), the artisans etc. were parts of the * clan networks. The tribe was referred to as the jana send many references to the different tribes are found in the Rigveda. Inter-tribal conflicts were frequent, an example being the battle of the Ten .Kings mentioned in the Rigveda. Some of the tribes, which fought in this battle were the Bharatas, the Purus, the Yadus, the Druhyus, the Anus and the Turvasus. Tribal conflicts, as mentioned earlier, were related to cattle raids, cattle thefts etc. The chief of the tribe was the raja or the gopati. He was the leader in battle and the protector of the tribe. His office, was not based on heredity, but he was selected from amongst the clansmen. The warrior category was the “rajanya”. Many clans (vis) formed a tribe. The clans settled in villages or grama. The basic social unit was the Kula, or the family, and the Kulapa i.e. ‘one who protects the family’ denoted the eldest male member or the head of the family.

The tribal polity was not completely egalita~ian. A division is found in the Rigveda itself, which is seen in references of two groups-the Rajanyas, or those who fought the wars, and are credited to be the senior linegage, and the rest of the clansmen or the vis, who formed the junior lineage. Though noqe of the groups occupied a distinct social hierarchy, constant conflicts aud inter-tribal wars helped to create a division in the society. The needs for more pasture lands, cattle for the protection of people and their settlement all probably contributed to an increase in inter and intra-tribal conflicts and warfare. The clans held large yajnas or sadices to help the warrior groups in the wars. In these yajnas the officiating priest or the pwohita acted as the mediator between his clansmen and the gods. He also invoked the gods’ blesssings for the tribal chief, for his success in the wars. Initially, the whole clan participated in these yajnas on an equal footing. Large scale disvibution of wealth, food, etc. was made during these sacrifices and members got an equal share. But with the growing incidence of conflicts and fights, yajnas or sacrifices also became important and the purohita assumed a special status in the society. In the later part of our period, they received a major share of the gifts from the rajas, and assumed a superior position vis-a-vis the other clan members.

Section 2: Answer each question in about 250 words.

  1. Write an essay on sixteen Mahajanpadas 12 Or Discuss the Megalithic culture of India.
  2. What were the main features of the administrative organization of the Mauryas? 12

Or

What were the factors which led to the rise of Magadha?

  1. Write a detailed note on Sungas and Kushanas. 12

Or

Discuss the main features of the trade and urbanization in the period between 200 BCE – 200 CE.

  1. Discuss the early state formation in Deccan.

Or

Discuss the growth of Tamil Language and literature. 5

Section 3: Answer in about 100 words each.

  1. Write short notes on any two of the following: 6 + 6
  2. a) Ashoka’s Dhamma.
  3. b) Mauryan Art
  4. c) Buddhism
  5. d) Bhakti Ideology

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Important Note – You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

IGNOU Instructions for the EHI 02 INDIA: EARLIEST TIMES TO 8TH CENTURY A.D.

EHI 02 INDIA: EARLIEST TIMES TO 8TH CENTURY A.D. Solved Assignment 2022-23 Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.

GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

EHI 02 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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EHI 02 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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