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MPYE 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22
v) Give answer of all five questions.
vi) All five questions carry equal marks.
vii) The answer of questions no. 1 and 2 should be in about 500 words each.
1. What are the normative characters of Social institutions? Discuss the role of social institutions in the sphere of morality. 20
a) What is deontology of Kant? Give two examples to show the limit of deontology.
b) What are three postulates of morality in Kantian Ethics? Discuss briefly. 10+10= 20
The term, “social institution” is somewhat unclear both in ordinary language and within the philosophical literature (see below). However, contemporary sociology is somewhat more consistent in its use of the term. Typically, contemporary sociologists use the term to ask complex social forms that reproduce themselves like governments, the family, human languages, universities, hospitals, business corporations, and legal systems. A typical definition is that proffered by Jonathan Turner (1997: 6): “a complex of positions, roles, norms and values lodged especially sorts of social structures and organising relatively stable patterns of act with reference to fundamental problems in producing life-sustaining resources, in reproducing individuals, and in sustaining viable societal structures within a given environment.” Again, Anthony Giddens (1984: 24) says: “Institutions by definition are the more enduring features of social life.” He (Giddens 1984: 31) goes on to list as institutional orders, modes of discourse, political institutions, economic institutions and legal institutions. The contemporary philosopher of science , Rom Harre follows the theoretical sociologists in offering this type of definition (Harre 1979: 98): “An institution was defined as an interlocking double-structure of persons-as-role-holders or office-bearers and therefore the like, and of social practices involving both expressive and practical aims and outcomes.” He gives as examples (Harre 1979: 97) schools, shops, post offices, police forces, asylums and therefore the British monarchy. during this entry the above-noted contemporary sociological usage are going to be followed. Doing so has the virtue of grounding philosophical doctrine within the most salient empirical discipline, namely, sociology.
In the not so recent past it’d are asked why a theory of social institutions has, or need to have, any philosophical interest; why not simply leave theories of institutions to the theoretical sociologists? However, in recent years philosophers have addressed a spread of ontological, explanatory, normative and other theoretical issues concerning social institutions (Searle 1995, 2007 and 2010; Tuomela 2002; Miller 2010; Epstein 2015; Guala 2016; Ludwig 2017). Of particular importance is that the work of John Searle (1995; 2010). One source of the impetus for this has been recent philosophical work on social policy and social forms more generally (Gilbert 1989; Searle 1990); Tuomela 2007; Schmid 2009; Miller 2001; Bratman 2014; Tollefsen 2015; Ludwig 2016). Another source is that the recognition that an honest deal of normative work on social justice, political philosophy and therefore the like presupposes an understanding of social institutions. as an example , philosophers, like John Rawls (1972), have developed elaborate normative theories concerning the principles of justice that need to govern social institutions. Yet they need done so within the absence of a developed theory of the character and point of the very entities (social institutions) to which the principles of justice in question are alleged to apply. Surely the adequacy of one’s normative account of the justice or otherwise of any given social institution, or system of social institutions, will depend a minimum of partially on the character and point of that social institution or system. Thus distributive justice is a crucial aspect of most, if not all, social institutions; the role occupants of most institutions are the recipients and providers of advantages , e.g. wages, consumer products, and therefore the bearers of burdens, e.g. allocated tasks and, accordingly, are subject to principles of distributive justice. Moreover, arguably some institutions, perhaps governments, have together of their defining ends or functions, to make sure conformity to principles of distributive justice within the wider society. However, distributive justice doesn’t appear to be a defining feature, end or function of all social institutions. By this I don’t mean that some social institutions are unjust and, as an example , exist in practice to serve narrow economic or other special interests (Marx 1867; Habermas 1978; Honneth 1995); though clearly many are. Rather i’m pertaining to the very fact that variety of social institutions, like the so-called Fourth Estate and therefore the university, are arguably not defined—normatively speaking—in terms of justice, but rather by another moral value(s), e.g. truth (Ostrom 2005; Miller 2010).
The entry has five sections. within the first section an summary of varied salient accounts of social institutions and their details of theoretical difference is provided. Accounts emanating from sociological theory also as philosophy are mentioned. Here, as elsewhere, the boundaries between philosophy and non-philosophical theorising in reference to an empirical science are vague. Hence, it’s important to say theories like those of Durkheim and Parsons , also as those of John Searle and David Lewis. Moreover, it’s also important to spotlight a number of the theoretical differences, notably those of an ontological character.
2. a) Evaluate the rules of argumentation in discourse ethics given by Habermass.
b) What are the objections of Karl-Otto Apel against previous moral theories? Discuss 10+10= 20
Explain and evaluate the idea of diversity of morals given by Morris Ginsberg. 20
3. Give answer of any two questions in about 250 words each. 2*10= 20
a) “Violence is morally wrong.” How would intuitionist, realist and relativist analyze this moral statement? 10
b) Critically evaluate the idea of cultural relativism in the field of morality. 10
c) What do you understand by Right to Life? Discuss the idea of dignified life in the context of cultural relativism and realism. 10
d) Compare human order with moral order. 10
4. Give answer of any four questions in about 150 words each. 4*5= 20
a) Write a note on the D. Ross’s idea of human duties. 5
b) Write a note on the social responsibility of media. 5
c) Compare Aristotle’s and MacIntyre’s virtue ethics. 5
d) Evaluate moral pluralism in the light of Bio Ethical issues. 5
e) What are the main objections against moral intuitionism? 5
f) Write a short note on the Levinas’ idea of moral responsibility. 5
5. Write short notes on any five in about 100 words each. 5*4= 20
a) Panchasila 4
b) Svadharma 4
c) Distributive Justice 4
d) Situation Ethics 4
e) Utilitarianism 4
f) Free Will 4
g) Determinism 4
h) Categorical Imperative 4
IGNOU MPYE 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22 : Gandhi National Open University had recently updated this session of 2021-22 MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY (MAPY) assignments on their official university website. we’ve made your work easy by making the solved assignments directly on one portal so as that students can easily get the solved assignments in one go. Students are advised to download their MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY (MAPY) IGNOU Assignments from this webpage itself with none hassle.
GUIDELINES FOR MPYE 002 Solved Assignment:-
You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
Please ensure the following before submitting your assignment :
1. Your enrollment number, name and address have been written correctly.
2. The title of the course and assignment number has been written clearly.
3. Each assignment on each course has been written on separate sheets and pinned properly.
4. All the questions in a particular section should be answered before attempting the next
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