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MES 103 Solved Assignment 2021-22
a) Describe Psychometric theories of intelligence. (500 words)
Psychometric theories have generally sought to know the structure of intelligence: What form does it take, and what are its parts, if any? Such theories have generally been supported and established by data obtained from tests of mental abilities, including analogies (e.g., lawyer is to client as doctor is to __), classifications (e.g., Which word doesn’t belong with the others? robin, sparrow, chicken, blue jay), and series completions (e.g., What number comes next within the following series? 3, 6, 10, 15, 21,_).
Psychometric theories are supported a model that portrays intelligence as a composite of abilities measured by mental tests. This model are often quantified. for instance , performance on a number-series test might represent a weighted composite of number, reasoning, and memory abilities for a posh series. Mathematical models leave weakness in one area to be offset by strong ability in another area of test performance. during this way, superior ability in reasoning can catch up on a deficiency in number ability.
One of the earliest of the psychometric theories came from British psychologist Charles E. Spearman (1863–1945), who published his first major article on intelligence in 1904. He noticed what could seem obvious now—that people that did well on one mental-ability test attended had best on others, while people that performed poorly on one among them also attended perform poorly on others. to spot the underlying sources of those performance differences, Spearman devised correlational analysis , a statistical technique that examines patterns of individual differences in test scores. He concluded that just two sorts of factors underlie all individual differences in test scores. the primary and more important factor, which he labeled the “general factor,” or g, pervades performance on all tasks requiring intelligence. In other words, no matter the task, if it requires intelligence, it requires g. The second factor is specifically associated with each particular test. for instance , when someone takes a test of arithmetical reasoning, his performance on the test requires a general factor that’s common to all or any tests (g) and a selected factor that’s associated with whatever mental operations are required for mathematical reasoning as distinct from other forms of thinking. But what, exactly, is g? in any case , giving something a reputation isn’t an equivalent as understanding what it’s . Spearman didn’t know exactly what the overall factor was, but he proposed in 1927 that it’d be something like “mental energy.”
The American psychologist L.L. Thurstone disagreed with Spearman’s theory, arguing instead that there have been seven factors, which he identified because the “primary mental abilities.” These seven abilities, consistent with Thurstone, were verbal comprehension (as involved within the knowledge of vocabulary and in reading), verbal fluency (as involved in writing and in producing words), number (as involved in solving fairly simple numerical computation and arithmetical reasoning problems), spatial visualization (as involved in visualizing and manipulating objects, like fitting a group of suitcases into an automobile trunk), generalization (as involved in completing variety series or in predicting the longer term on the idea of past experience), memory (as involved in recalling people’s names or faces, and perceptual speed (as involved in rapid proofreading to get typographical errors during a text).
Although the talk between Spearman and Thurstone has remained unresolved, other psychologists—such as Canadian Philip E. Vernon and American Raymond B. Cattell—have suggested that both were right in some respects. Vernon and Cattell viewed intellectual abilities as hierarchical, with g, or general ability, located at the highest of the hierarchy. But below g are levels of gradually narrowing abilities, ending with the precise abilities identified by Spearman. Cattell, for instance , suggested in Abilities: Their Structure, Growth, and Action (1971) that general ability are often subdivided into two further kinds, “fluid” and “crystallized.” Fluid abilities are the reasoning and problem-solving abilities measured by tests like analogies, classifications, and series completions. Crystallized abilities, which are thought to derive from fluid abilities, include vocabulary, general information, and knowledge about specific fields. The American psychologist John L. Horn suggested that crystallized abilities more or less increase over a person’s lifetime , whereas fluid abilities increase in earlier years and reduce in later ones.
b) Discuss educational applications of motivation theories in teaching-learning. (500 words)
c) What are the learning characteristics of visually challenged learners? Discuss the strategies, a college teacher to take to adopt for their facilitation.
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GUIDELINES FOR MES 103 Solved Assignment:-
You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
Please ensure the following before submitting your assignment :
1. Your enrolment number, name and address have been written correctly.
2. The title of the course and assignment number has been written clearly.
3. Each assignment on each course has been written on separate sheets and pinned properly.
4. All the questions in a particular section should be answered before attempting the next
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