MANI 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22 , MANI 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22 , MANI 002 Assignment 2022 , FREE MANI 002 Assignment , IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of this session for Master’s in Anthropology for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. They don’t need to go anywhere else when everything regarding the Assignments are available during this text only.
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MANI 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22
Course Code: MANI 002
Assignment Code: MANI 002/AST/TMA/2021-22
Total Marks: 100
Note: There are two sections ‘A’ and ‘B’. Attempt any five questions, at least two from each section. All questions carry equal marks. The word limit for 20 marks question is 500 words and that of 10 marks is 250 words.
1. Define physical anthropology. Briefly discuss its aims and scope. 20
Physical anthropology, branch of anthropology concerned with the origin, evolution, and variety of individuals . Physical anthropologists work broadly on three major sets of problems: human and nonhuman primate evolution, human variation and its significance (see also race), and therefore the biological bases of human behaviour. The course that human evolution has taken and therefore the processes that have brought it about are of equal concern. so as to elucidate the range within and between human populations, physical anthropologists must study past populations of fossil hominins also because the nonhuman primates. Much light has been thrown upon the reference to other primates and upon the character of the transformation to human anatomy and behavior within the course of evolution from early hominins to modern people—a span of a minimum of four million years.
The processes liable for the differentiation of individuals into geographic populations and for the general unity of Homo sapiens include survival , mutation, genetic drift, migration, and genetic recombination. Objective methods of isolating various sorts of traits and dealing mathematically with their frequencies, also as their functional or phylogenetic significance, make it possible to know the composition of human populations and to formulate hypotheses concerning their future. The genetic and anthropometric information that physical anthropologists collect provides facts about not only the groups who inhabit the world but also the individuals who compose those groups. Practical applications of physical anthropological data include, for instance , using estimates of the possibilities that children will inherit certain genes to counsel families about some medical conditions.
The study of human evolution is multidisciplinary, requiring not only physical anthropologists but also earth scientists, archaeologists, molecular biologists, primatologists, and cultural anthropologists. The essential problems aren’t only to explain fossil forms but also to guage the importance of their traits. Concepts like orthogenesis are replaced by radiation (radiant evolution) and parallel evolution. Fossil hominins of considerable antiquity are found in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Europe, and few areas lack interesting human skeletal remains. Two problems requiring additional research are (1) the place, time, and nature of the emergence of hominins from preceding hominoids and (2) the precise relationship of fully anatomically modern Homo sapiens to other species of Homo of the Pleistocene (i.e., about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago), like the Neanderthal
Nonhuman primates provide a broad comparative framework within which physical anthropologists can study aspects of the human career and condition. Comparative morphological studies, particularly people who are complemented by biomechanical analyses, provide major clues to the functional significance and evolution of the skeletal and muscular complexes that underpin our bipedalism, dextrous hands, bulbous heads, outstanding noses, and puny jaws. The big variety of adaptations that primates have made to life in trees and on the bottom are reflected in their limb proportions and relative development of muscles. (Compare Ardipithecus).
The study of inherited traits in individuals and therefore the actions of the genes liable for them in populations is significant to understanding human variability. Although blood groups initially constituted the majority of knowledge , many other molecular traits, particularly DNA sequences, are analyzed. At the turn of the 21st century, geographic populations were described in terms of gene frequencies, which were successively wont to model the history of population movements. This information, combined with linguistic and archaeological evidence, helps to resolve puzzles on the peopling of continents and archipelagoes. Traits that were used for racial classifications don’t group neatly in patterns that might allow boundaries to be drawn among geographic populations (see race), and none endows any population with more humanity than others. The concept of biological races (subspecies) of Homo sapiens is invalid; biologically meaningful racial types are nonexistent, and every one humans are mongrels.
Problems of population composition, size, and stability are important in some ways . an instantaneous aspect is that the varying rate of change which will occur in populations of various sizes. Theoretically, small populations are more vulnerable to chance fluctuations than large populations. Both the natural environment and therefore the economy of a specific society affect population size. Studies of human physiological adaptations to high-altitude, arid, frigid, and other environments, of nutrition, and of epidemiology have revealed just how versatile and vulnerable humans are.
Bioarchaeologists test hypotheses about relative mortality, population movements, wars, social station , political organization, and other demographic, epidemiological, and social phenomena in past societies by combining detailed knowledge of cultural features and artifacts, like those associated with mortuary practice, with an understanding of paleonutrition, paleopathology, and therefore the discrete traits which will be detected from skeletons.
2. Discuss primate characteristics. 20
3. Briefly discuss serological criteria for Racial Classification. 20
4. Discuss the genetic factors affecting growth. 20
5. Write short notes on any two of the following: 10+10
a) Prenatal stages of growth
b) Genetic counseling
c) Ecological rules
6. Describe in brief synthetic theory of evolution. 20
7. Discuss scope of Palaeoanthropology. 20
8. Discuss relationship of physical anthropology with forensic science and earth science.
9. What are the physiological responses to cold? Discuss. 20
10. Distinguish between any two of the following: 10+10
a) Cross-sectional method and Mixed longitudinal method
b) Positive secular trend and negative secular trend
c) Lamarckism and Darwinism
IGNOU MANI 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22 : Gandhi National Open University had recently updated this session of 2021-22 Master’s in Anthropology assignments on their official university website. we’ve made your work easy by making the solved assignments directly on one portal so as that students can easily get the solved assignments in one go. Students are advised to download their Master’s in Anthropology IGNOU Assignments from this webpage itself with none hassle.
GUIDELINES FOR MANI 002 Solved Assignment:-
You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
Please ensure the following before submitting your assignment :
1. Your enrolment number, name and address have been written correctly.
2. The title of the course and assignment number has been written clearly.
3. Each assignment on each course has been written on separate sheets and pinned properly.
4. All the questions in a particular section should be answered before attempting the next
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