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MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22

MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 , MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 , MANI 001 Assignment 2022 , FREE MANI 001 Assignment , IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of this session for Master’s in Anthropology for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. They don’t need to go anywhere else when everything regarding the Assignments are available during this text only.

MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 : for college kids – MANI 001 : Anthropology and Methods of Research Solved Assignment 2021-22 , Students are advised that after successfully downloading their Assignments, you’ll find each and every course assignments of your downloaded. Candidates got to create separate assignment for the IGNOU Master Course, so as that it’s easy for Evaluators to ascertain your assignments.

MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22

Course Code: MANI-001
Assignment Code: MANI-001/AST/TMA/2021-22
Total Marks: 100

Note: There are two sections ‘A’ and ‘B’. Attempt five questions and at least two questions from each section. All questions carry equal marks. The word limit for 20 marks is 500 words and for 10 marks is 250 words.


1. Define anthropology and discuss human diversity and variation within its subject matter. 20

Anthropology, “the science of humanity,” which studies citizenry in aspects starting from the biology and evolutionary history of Homo sapiens to the features of society and culture that decisively distinguish humans from other animal species. due to the various material it encompasses, anthropology has become, especially since the center of the 20th century, a set of more specialized fields. anthropology is that the branch that concentrates on the biology and evolution of humanity. it’s discussed in greater detail within the article human evolution. The branches that study the social and cultural constructions of human groups are variously recognized as belonging to cultural anthropology (or ethnology), social anthropology, linguistic anthropology, and psychological anthropology (see below). Archaeology (see below), because the method of investigation of prehistoric cultures, has been an integral a part of anthropology since it became a self-conscious discipline within the latter half the 19th century. (For a extended treatment of the history of archaeology, see archaeology.)

Throughout its existence as a tutorial discipline, anthropology has been located at the intersection of science and humanities. The biological evolution of Homo sapiens and therefore the evolution of the capacity for culture that distinguishes humans from all other species are indistinguishable from each other . While the evolution of the human species may be a biological development just like the processes that gave rise to the opposite species, the historical appearance of the capacity for culture initiates a qualitative departure from other sorts of adaptation, supported a very variable creativity indirectly linked to survival and ecological adaptation. The historical patterns and processes related to culture as a medium for growth and alter , and therefore the diversification and convergence of cultures through history, are thus major foci of anthropological research.

In the middle of the 20th century, the distinct fields of research that separated anthropologists into specialties were (1) anthropology , emphasizing the organic process and endowment that distinguishes Homo sapiens from other species, (2) archaeology, supported the physical remnants of past cultures and former conditions of up to date cultures, usually found buried within the earth, (3) linguistic anthropology, emphasizing the unique human capacity to speak through articulate speech and therefore the diverse languages of humankind, and (4) social and/or social anthropology , emphasizing the cultural systems that distinguish human societies from each other and therefore the patterns of social organisation related to these systems. By the center of the 20th century, many American universities also included (5) psychological anthropology, emphasizing the relationships among culture, social organization , and therefore the person as an individual .

History of anthropology
The modern discourse of anthropology crystallized within the 1860s, fired by advances in biology, philology, and prehistoric archaeology. within the Origin of Species (1859), Darwin affirmed that each one sorts of life share a standard ancestry. Fossils began to be reliably related to particular geologic strata, and fossils of recent human ancestors were discovered, most famously the primary Neanderthal specimen, unearthed in 1856. In 1871 Darwin published The Descent of Man, which argued that citizenry shared a recent common ancestor with the good African apes. He identified the defining characteristic of the human species as their relatively large brain size and deduced that the evolutionary advantage of the human species was intelligence, which yielded language and technology.

Social and social anthropology
A distinctive “social” or “cultural” anthropology emerged within the 1920s. it had been related to the social sciences and linguistics, instead of with human biology and archaeology. In Britain especially social anthropologists came to take themselves as comparative sociologists, but the idea persisted that anthropologists were primarily concerned with contemporary hunter-gatherers or pastoralists, and in practice evolutionary ways of thinking may often be discerned below the surface of functionalist argument that represents itself as ahistorical. A stream of serious monographs and comparative studies appeared within the 1930s and ’40s that described and classified the social structures of what were termed tribal societies. In African Political Systems (1940), Meyer Fortes and Edward Evans-Pritchard proposed a triadic classification of African polities. Some African societies (e.g., the San) were organized into kin-based bands. Others (e.g., the Nuer and therefore the Tallensi) were federations of unilineal descent groups, each of which was related to a territorial segment. Finally, there have been territorially based states (e.g., those of the Tswana of southern Africa and therefore the Kongo of Central African Republic , or the emirates of northwestern Africa), during which kinship and descent regulated only domestic relationships. Kin-based bands lived by foraging, lineage-based societies were often pastoralists, and therefore the states combined agriculture, pastoralism, and trade. In effect, this was a change of the evolutionist stages into a synchronic classification of types. Though speculations about origins were discouraged, it had been apparent that the kinds could easily be rearranged during a sequence from the smallest amount to the foremost sophisticated.

2. What is fieldwork? Discuss major fieldwork tradition in Anthropology. 20

3. Briefly discuss the branches of Anthropology. 20

4. Discuss the applications of genealogy and pedigree in anthropological studies. 20

5. Write short notes: 10+10
a. Ethnography
b. Anthropometry


6. Describe current fields in archaeological anthropology. 20

7. What are the different types of research design? 20

8. Discuss briefly techniques and methods used in anthropology. 20

9. What is primary and secondary data? 20

10. Write short notes: 10+10
a. Archaeological methods
b. Review of literature

IGNOU MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 : Gandhi National Open University had recently updated this session of 2021-22 Master’s in Anthropology assignments on their official university website. we’ve made your work easy by making the solved assignments directly on one portal so as that students can easily get the solved assignments in one go. Students are advised to download their Master’s in Anthropology IGNOU Assignments from this webpage itself with none hassle.

GUIDELINES FOR MANI 001 Solved Assignment:-

You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.

2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.

Please ensure the following before submitting your assignment :

1. Your enrolment number, name and address have been written correctly.
2. The title of the course and assignment number has been written clearly.
3. Each assignment on each course has been written on separate sheets and pinned properly.
4. All the questions in a particular section should be answered before attempting the next

MAAN 2021-22 1st Year Question Paper

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