MANE 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 , MANE 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 , MANE 001 Assignment 2022 , FREE MANE 001 Assignment , IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of this session for Master’s in Anthropology for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. They don’t need to go anywhere else when everything regarding the Assignments are available during this text only.
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MANE 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22
Course Code: MANE 001
Assignment Code: MANE 001/AST/TMA/2021-22
Total Marks: 100
Note: Attempt any five questions. Choose at least two questions from each section. All questions carry equal marks. The word limit for 20 marks is 500 words and for 10 marks is 250 words.
1. What is Human Genetics? Briefly elucidate different branches of Human Genetics. 20
Human genetics, study of the inheritance of characteristics by children from parents. Inheritance in humans doesn’t differ in any fundamental way from that in other organisms.
The study of human heredity occupies a central position in genetics. Much of this interest stems from a basic desire to understand who humans are and why they’re as they’re . At a more practical level, an understanding of human heredity is of critical importance within the prediction, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases that have a genetic component. the search to work out the genetic basis of human health has given rise to the sector of medical genetics. generally , medicine has given focus and purpose to human genetics, therefore the terms medical genetics and human genetics are often considered synonymous.
The human chromosomes
A new era in cytogenetics, the sector of investigation concerned with studies of the chromosomes, began in 1956 with the invention by Jo Hin Tjio and Albert Levan that human somatic cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. Since that point the sector has advanced with amazing rapidity and has demonstrated that human chromosome aberrations rank as major causes of fetal death and of tragic human diseases, many of which are amid intellectual disability. Since the chromosomes are often delineated only during mitosis, it’s necessary to look at material during which there are many dividing cells. this will usually be accomplished by culturing cells from the blood or skin, since only the bone marrow cells (not readily sampled except during serious bone marrow disease like leukemia) have sufficient mitoses within the absence of artificial culture. After growth, the cells are fixed on slides then stained with a spread of DNA-specific stains that let the delineation and identification of the chromosomes. The Denver system of chromosome classification, established in 1959, identified the chromosomes by their length and therefore the position of the centromeres. Since then the tactic has been improved by the utilization of special staining techniques that impart unique light and dark bands to every chromosome. These bands permit the identification of chromosomal regions that are duplicated, missing, or transposed to other chromosomes.
Fertilization, sex determination, and differentiation
A human individual arises through the union of two cells, an egg from the mother and a sperm from the daddy . Human egg cells are barely visible to the eye . they’re shed, usually one at a time, from the ovary into the oviducts (fallopian tubes), through which they pass into the uterus. Fertilization, the penetration of an egg by a sperm, occurs within the oviducts. this is often the most event of amphimixis and determines the genotype of the new individual.
Human sex determination may be a genetic process that depends basically on the presence of the Y chromosome within the embryo . This chromosome stimulates a change within the undifferentiated gonad into that of the male (a testicle). The gonadal action of the Y chromosome is mediated by a gene located near the centromere; this gene codes for the assembly of a cell surface molecule called the H-Y antigen. Further development of the anatomic structures, both internal and external, that are related to maleness is controlled by hormones produced by the testicle. The sex of a private are often thought of in three different contexts: chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, and anatomic sex. Discrepancies between these, especially the latter two, end in the event of people with ambiguous sex, often called hermaphrodites. Homosexuality is unrelated to the above sex-determining factors. it’s of interest that within the absence of a male gonad (testicle) the interior and external sex anatomy is usually female, even within the absence of a female ovary. A female without ovaries will, of course, be infertile and can not experience any of the feminine developmental changes normally related to puberty. Such a female will often have Turner syndrome.
Immunity is that the ability of a private to acknowledge the “self” molecules that structure one’s own body and to differentiate them from such “nonself” molecules as those found in infectious microorganisms and toxins. This process features a prominent genetic component. Knowledge of the genetic and molecular basis of the mammalian system has increased in parallel with the explosive advances made in vegetative cell and genetics .
There are two major components of the system , both originating from an equivalent precursor “stem” cells. The bursa component provides B lymphocytes, a category of white blood cells that, when appropriately stimulated, differentiate into plasma cells. These latter cells produce circulating soluble proteins called antibodies or immunoglobulins. Antibodies are produced in response to substances called antigens, most of which are foreign proteins or polysaccharides. An antibody molecule can recognize a selected antigen, combine with it, and initiate its destruction. This so-called humoral immunity is accomplished through a sophisticated series of interactions with other molecules and cells; a number of these interactions are mediated by another group of lymphocytes, the T lymphocytes, which are derived from the thymus . Once a B cell has been exposed to a selected antigen, it “remembers” the contact in order that future exposure will cause an accelerated and magnified immune response . this is often a manifestation of what has been called immunological memory.
2. What is Meiosis cell division? Discuss briefly the different stages of cell division with suitable diagrams. 20
3. What is Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium? Briefly examine the factors affecting change in gene frequency. 20
4. Discuss different types of chromosomal aberrations in man. 20
5. Write short notes on any two of the following: 10+10
a). Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization
b). ABO blood group system
c). Genetic Epidemiology
6. Define DNA polymorphism. Examine any two techniques used in molecular genetics. 20
7. What is Human Genome Project? Briefly discuss the applications of Human Genome Project. 20
8. What are metabolic diseases? Briefly examine different metabolic diseases. 20
9. What do you understand by Genetic Counselling? Briefly discuss the process of genetic counselling. 20
10. Write short note on any two of the following. 10+10
b. Abnormal Haemoglobins
c. Genetic Epidemiology
d. Colour blindness
IGNOU MANE 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 : Gandhi National Open University had recently updated this session of 2021-22 Master’s in Anthropology assignments on their official university website. we’ve made your work easy by making the solved assignments directly on one portal so as that students can easily get the solved assignments in one go. Students are advised to download their Master’s in Anthropology IGNOU Assignments from this webpage itself with none hassle.
GUIDELINES FOR MANE 001 Solved Assignment:-
You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
Please ensure the following before submitting your assignment :
1. Your enrolment number, name and address have been written correctly.
2. The title of the course and assignment number has been written clearly.
3. Each assignment on each course has been written on separate sheets and pinned properly.
4. All the questions in a particular section should be answered before attempting the next
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